Dental Implants Osseointegration is a term that refers to bony union of Titanium based Dental Implant and the existing jaw bone. Often Dentist refer to this term in regard to the functional readiness and structural association of the Dental Implant. It is a prerequisite that determine long term success and stability of the Dental Implant.
The process of Osseointegration is complex and usually takes few weeks or months after the Dental Implant surgery. During the Implant site preparation, Drills are used to prepare the surgical bed for Dental Implant. Often the Micro Blood Vessels in the bone are sectioned during the drilling process, which allows cell to cell interactions and initiate direct bone healing. This bio-dynamic process along with sequelae of bone repair and regeneration determine the functional readiness of Dental Implant.
Stage -1 Hemostasis
Within 2-3 minutes of the Dental Implant Placement into the surgical site, the first stage of Dental Implant Osseointegration begins. The Blood coagulates around the Dental Implants and forms collagen fibers union between the Dental Implant surface and ruptured micro Blood Vessels. The platelets start aggregating around the cross linking collagen fibers forming a matrix and thus laying the foundation stone for bone repair process.
Hours after the Dental Implant surgery, the second stage Osseointegration ( Inflammation) begins. The defense cells or immunity cells start cleaning up surgical site-removing debris, possible bacteria, sectioned small bony residues. At this stage the peri-vascular cells start repair and regeneration of the Micro Blood Vessels along with defense cells of the body.
Stage-3 Proliferative Stage
Days after the Dental Implant surgery, the third stage Osseointegration ( Proliferation) begins. Peri-vascular cells regulate Angio-genesis and often lead to the formation of Osteoblast cells (Bone Forming Cells ) and Fibroblast cells (Fiber forming cells). Osteoblast cell enable the formation of new bone via release of calcium phosphates and carbonate around collagen fibers. Thus proliferation leads to new bone formation between the threads of the Dental Implants.
Months or weeks after the Dental Implant surgery the fourth stage of Osseointegration called Reconstruction begins. At this stage the Implant integrate to the bone and tissues. Osteocytes initiate the regeneration and bone remodeling phase. Ones the fourth stage, Remodeling is complete the Dental Implant has aggregated with the bony tissues and the Dentist can initiate the process of placing the teeth over the Dental Implants also called as Loading.
For Osseointegration, Titanium and Zirconium have been the material of choice for Dental Implant designs. In human body these two materials have demonstrated amazing bio-compatibility and superior mechanical properties. The use of these materials ages back to several hundred years. Scientist and researches are persistently working on Dental Implant designs and technology hoping that the Dental Implant procedures and Osseointegration will accomplish perfection in the near future.